Human Anatomy and Physiology-I


Human Anatomy and Physiology I typically refers to the first part of a two-semester course sequence that covers the structure and function of the human body. This course is usually taken by students pursuing degrees in biology, pre-medical studies, nursing, and related fields. Here’s an overview of the topics typically covered in Human Anatomy and Physiology -I



  1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology:
    • Basic anatomical terminology.
    • Levels of structural organization in the body (cells, tissues, organs, organ systems).
    • Homeostasis and its importance in maintaining a stable internal environment.
  2. Chemistry and Cell Biology:
    • Basic chemistry concepts, including atoms, molecules, and chemical bonds.
    • Cellular structure and function, including the cell membrane, organelles, and cellular processes (e.g., cell division, metabolism).
  3. Tissues:
    • The four primary tissue types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues.
    • Functions and locations of each tissue type.
  4. Integumentary System:
    • The skin and its functions, including protection, temperature regulation, and sensation.
    • Accessory structures of the skin, such as hair, nails, and glands.
  5. Skeletal System:
    • Bone structure, types of bones, and bone growth.
    • Joints and their classifications.
    • Skeletal system functions, including support, protection, and mineral storage.
  6. Muscular System:
    • Muscle tissue types (skeletal, smooth, cardiac).
    • Muscle contraction and function.
    • Muscle attachments and actions.
  7. Nervous System:
    • Nervous tissue and neuron structure.
    • Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system.
    • Nerve impulses and neurotransmission.
    • Senses and sensory receptors.
  8. Endocrine System:
    • Endocrine glands and hormones.
    • Hormone functions and regulation.
    • Feedback mechanisms.
  9. Cardiovascular System:
    • Heart anatomy and function.
    • Blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries).
    • Blood composition and functions.
    • Blood circulation.
  10. Lymphatic System and Immunity:
    • Lymphatic system structure and functions.
    • Immune system components and mechanisms.


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